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Seeburg Needles

October 31st, 2010

Seeburg Needles

Seeburg Needles

Gramophone record

The beginnings
Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899
A device using a vibrating pen to graphically represent sound on paper disks, without the idea of reading in any way, was built by Edouard-Leon Scott of France in 1857. Although the mechanism, known as a phonautograph, is only intended to describe the visual characteristics of the sound, it was recently reported that this representation could be analyzed numerically and rebuilt as a sound recording. Just such a phonoautogram beginning in 1860 and now best-known audio recording was reproduced using computer technology.
In 1877, Thomas Edison developed the phonautograph in a machine, the phonograph, which was able to replay recordings were made. Recordings were made on aluminum foil, and were originally intended to be used voice as a recording medium, typically for office dictation.
The cylinder phonograph dominated the market has recorded its first in years 1880. lateral cut disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888 and have been used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disc records under the Berliner Gramophone label. Berliner recordings had poor sound quality, however, but the work by R. Eldridge Johnson improved fidelity to a point where they were as good as cylinders. Johnson and Berliner separate companies merged to form the Victor Talking Machine Company, whose products would come to dominate the market for many years later.
In an attempt to head of the advantage of the disc, Edison Amberol cylinder introduced in 1909, with a maximum playing time of 4 minutes (160 rpm) for turn replaced by the Blue Amberol Record with the playing surface was made of celluloid, an early plastic that is much less fragile than the earlier wax (in fact, it would have been more or less indestructible if it had not been for plaster base paris). In November 1918 the patents for the production of records in lateral cutting expired, opening the field to many companies to produce them, causing disc records to exceed cylinders in popularity. Edison has ceased production of bottles in 1929 (reputedly the day before the crash of Wall Street). Disc records would dominate the market until they are superseded by the Compact Disc, from early 1980.
78 developments disk rpm
Hungarian road record, 90 to 100 rpm / Min
high speed
Quick disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to 120 rpm, and a variety sizes. At least a manufacturer, Philips, produced records that played at a constant linear velocity. As these were played from the inside Outside, the rotational speed of the file that the reduced reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc).
By 1894, Emile Berliner Gramophone Company in the United States has been selling sided 7 "discs with an advertised speed standard of" about 70 laps / Min.
A standard manual audio recording describes speed regulators or "governors" as part of a wave of improvement developed rapidly after 1897. A picture of a crank Victrola 1898 shows a governor. He says that readers Spring replaced records by hand. It notes that:
"The cruise control was provided with an indicator that shows the speed when the machine was running for the files on the reproduction could be increased at the same speed … The literature does not reveal why 78 rpm was chosen for the Phonographic Industry, apparently this just happened at the speed created by one of the first machines, and for no other reason continued to be used. "
Emile Berliner Gramophone Record Company (later Deutsche Grammophon). Made in 1908 in Hannover, Germany
In America in 1900, the two main Manufacturers of flat files were British, who used 80 rpm than speed, and Victor, who used 76 rpm. As the records of an enterprise were playable on the other machine, it is logical that the standard speed is possible in the middle.
In 1925, the recording speed has become normalized to a nominal value of 78 rpm. However, the standard was to differ between America and the world. The actual speed 78 in America was 78.26 rpm, being the speed of 3600 rpm synchronous motor (running at 60 Hz) reduced by 46:1 gearing. Throughout the world, 77.92 rpm min was adopted as an engine speed 3000 rpm synchronous powered by a 50 Hz and reduced to 38.5:1 gear.
To a more comprehensive depth to 78, cylinders and other historical materials, please visit http://78rpmrecord.com
acoustic recording
first recordings were entirely acoustic, the sound is collected by a horn and routed to a diaphragm that vibrated the cutting stylus. Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and the frequency response was very irregular, which indicates a quality recordings on cylinders instantly recognizable tone. A singer practically had to put his face in the Horn of registration. Cellos and basses were completely undetectable. Standard violins were barely recordable, Stroh violins became so popular with recording studios.
Unlike to popular belief, if it is properly positioned and ready, drums could be used effectively and heard, even on the first jazz recordings and military band. The strongest instruments was farthest from the Horn of collective management. Lillian Hardin Armstrong, a member of the band King Oliver's Creole Jazz that recorded at Gennett Records in 1923, recalls that initially, Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrong, are next to each other and Oliver Horn could not be heard. "They put Louis to about five feet in the corner, looking all sad."
"Electrical" recording
German record electrical GA Carl Lindstrm
During the 1920s, engineers, including Orlando R. Marsh, as well as those at Western Electric, the technology developed to capture the sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head. A wide range of frequencies could now be recorded with a sharp increase in the reading volume limited by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
Although the technology used vacuum tubes, and today could be described as "electronic", when he was returned as "electric." Ad Wanamaker 1926 in the New York Times provides records "by the latest Victor process of electrical recording." It has been recognized as a breakthrough in a Times music critic said:
"… The time has come for serious musical criticism to take account of the performance of great music reproduced by means of recordings. Claiming that the record succeeded in reproducing accurate and complete details of all symphonic concerts and opera … would be extravagant. [But] Article today is so far ahead of the old machines as hard to accept classification with the same name. electrical recording and reproduction have combined to maintain the vitality and color in the recitals by proxy. "
Peter Carl Goldmark (Hungarian: Goldmark Pter Kroly) was an engineer Hungarian during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing long-play (LP) LP 3313 rpm vinyl phonograph discs which defined audio home for two generations.
Example of Congolese 78 rpm records
A 10-inch gramophone blank for self recording with 78 rpm, a mark as matter "Decelith" with a special surface for hardening
Electrical recording preceded electrical reproduction (as digital recording that preceded the digital copying at home), because of the high initial cost of electronics. In 1925, the company introduced the revolutionary Victor Victor Victrola speech therapy, a turntable sound that has been specifically designed for reading electrical drives, through a power line which also included reproductive ELECTROLIT. " Acoustics Speech ranged in the price of U.S. $ 95 to $ 300 (about U.S. $ 1,140 to $ 3,600 in year 2007 dollars), cabinets, by comparison, the cheaper the cost Electrola U.S. $ 650 (about U.S. $ 7500 for 2007 dollars).
The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance matching and the theory of the transmission line, designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response. Its first manifestation public has been front page news in The New York Times, which reported that:
"The audience burst into applause … John Philip Sousa [said]." Gentleman [sic], a group This is the first time I ever heard music with a soul to it produced by a mechanical machine to speak. "… The new instrument is a feat of mathematics and physics. This is not the result of countless experiments, but was developed on paper before being integrated into the lab …. The new machine has a range of frequencies from 100 to 5000 [sic], or five and a half octaves …. The "Your phonograph" is eliminated by the new recording and reproduction process. "
Gradually, the reproduction power entered the house. The clockwork motor was replaced by an electric motor engine, the "needle" and the diaphragm ("sounding" l ') was replaced with a "pickup" or a pen of steel or sapphire, and a transducer to convert the vibrations groove into an electrical signal. The exponential horn has become an amplifier and speaker. [Citation needed]
Materials 78 rpm
Early recordings discs were made of various materials including hard rubber. From 1897, the earlier materials were largely replaced by a formula rather fragile 25% shellac, a charge of a cotton compound similar to manila paper, powdered slate and a small amount of lubricant wax.
The mass production of shellac records began in 1898 in Hanover, Germany, and continued until the late 78's format in the late 1950. Unbreakable records, usually of celluloid on a cardboard base, were made in 1904, but they suffered a exceptionally high level of surface noise. "Unbreakable" records could be bent, broken or damaged, but not as easily as shellac records. Vinyl was first tried as a material of 78 laps in 1939 as a radio commercial cigarettes to individual stations, as vinyl was less brittle in the mail. On the recording, there is mention of the Lucky Strike exhibition at the Exhibition of 1939 NY World. Decca presented vinyl "Deccalite" 78 laps after the Second World War. During the war, the U.S. military produced thousands of V-Discs for soldiers play abroad, and the giant 16-inch radio transcriptions war department, all of which were made of vinyl. Victor made some 78 Vinyl towers, but other labels such as to limit the production of vinyl, special DJ copies of 78, which were often published in vinyl for sent to radio stations during the late '40s and early '50s. Finally, 78 editions have been produced since the vinyl 1990 for collectors jukebox, by Rhino Records. Precautions must be made ever read on a vinyl 78 rpm phonograph that he will destroy them.
78 the size of the disk rpm
In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) diameter. In 1910, a record 10 inches (25.4 cm) was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on one side. From 1903, records 12 inches (30.5 cm) were also commercially sold, mostly to classical music or opera selections, with four to five minutes of music per side. (Victor, New Brunswick and British also issued 12 "popular medleys, usually highlighting a Broadway score.) However, other dimensions appear. 8-inch discs with a label 2 inches in diameter became popular for a decade in Britain, they can not be played in full on most modern disk drives because the arm can not reach far enough, without modifying the device.
78 rpm recording time
The playing time of a phonograph record depended on the speed of the plate spacing and throat. Early the 20th century, the first disc played for two minutes, the same as the first cylinder records. The 12-inch disc, presented by Victor 1903, increased playing time to three and a half minutes. As a 10-inch 78 rpm record could hold about three minutes of his sides and the size of 10 inches is the standard format of popular music, almost all popular recordings were limited to three minutes in length.
For example, when King Jazz Oliver's Creole Band, Louis Armstrong, including his first recordings, recorded 13 sides for Gennett Records in Richmond, Indiana, in 1923, a 2:09 ET side was four sides were 2:522:59.
In 1938, when Milt Gabler started recording on January 17 for his new label, Commodore Records, to allow more continuous performances, he recorded some 12 "records Eddie Condon explained." Gabler. Realized that a jam session needs space for development "The first two 12" records did not take advantage of extra length, "Carnegie Drag" was 3:15; Carnegie Jump ", 2:41. But at the second session, April 30, the 12 two "recordings were more:" Embraceable You "was 4:05;" Serenade to a Shylock, "4:32.
Another way around the limitation in time was to issue a selection on both sides of a single disk. Gallagher and Shean vaudeville star, recorded "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean," written by Irving and Jack Kaufman, as two sides of a 10 "78 in 1922 to Cameo.
An obvious workaround for longer recordings was published a set of records. The first multi-version record in 1903, when HMV in England made the first complete recording of an opera Verdi's Ernani, 40 single-sided discs. In 1940, Commodore released Eddie Condon and his recording of the group "A Good Man is hard to find" four parties, issued on both sides of two 12 "78s.
This limitation of the duration of both popular music and jazz have persisted from 1910 until the invention of the LP in 1948.
In popular music, this limitation of time of about 3:30 on a 10 "78 rpm record means that the singers are usually not reported for many exhibits. An exception is the recording of Rodgers and Hammerstein Frank Sinatra "Soliloquy" from Carousel is May 28, 1946. Because he ran 7:57, more than two sides of a standard 78 rpm 10 "record, he was released on Columbia label Masterwork (The classic division) as two sides of a 12 "record. (See date.)
At that time 78, classical music and spoken-word elements general have been released on the 12 most "78s, about 45 minutes per side. For example, June 10, 1924, four months after February 12 Premier's Rhapsody in Blue George Gershwin he recorded with Paul Whiteman and his orchestra. He was released on both sides and works of Victor 55225 8:59. Look under the title
Record albums
These 78 rounds are usually sold separately, in brown paper or cardboard sleeves that are sometimes simple and sometimes printed to show the producer or the retailer's name. In general, the sleeves have a circular cutout allowing the label to see. Records may be shelved horizontally or stood on edge, but because of their fragility, many broke into storage.
German Society Odeon record is often said to have been the first "album" in 1909 when he published the "Nutcracker Suite" by Tchaikovsky on 4 discs double-faced in a specially crafted packet. (It does not indicate how large the files are.) However, Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for his complete recording of the opera Carmen in the previous year. The practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been largely taken by other record companies for many years, but HMV has given an album with an illustrated cover, for the registration of 1917 of The Mikado (Gilbert & Sullivan).
By Topic 1910 [Footnote 1] Consolidated collections of empty sleeves with a cardboard cover or leather-like album photographs were sold as "record albums" that customers could use to store their documents (The "Music Album" was printed on some covers). These albums come in both 10 "and 12" sizes. The covers of these bound books were broader and higher than the records inside, allowing the album to be placed on a tray in an upright position, like a book, suspension records fragile over the plate and protect them.
From the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by an interpreter or a type of music in specially assembled albums, usually with an illustration on the cover and notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums include 3 or 4 folders, each with 2 sides, 6 or 8 pieces per album. When the 12-inch vinyl LP era began in 1949, the unique recording often had the same number or even songs like typical album 78, which gave birth to the tradition of "album" being given to the FA.
New sizes and materials
A modern 12 vinyl albums "during playback. Note the stylus contact with the surface.
Both the disc LP LP 33 rpm and 45 rpm single records are made of vinyl plastic that is flexible and unbreakable in normal use. However, CD vinyls are easier to scratch or gouge, and more likely to deform.
In 1931, RCA Victor (which evolved from Victor Talking Machine Johnson and Berliner Company) has launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as "Program Transcription" discs. These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 33 rpm and leaning on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes time clearance on either side. In Roland Gelatt's book The Fabulous Phonograph, the author notes that RCA Victor's early introduction of a long hard game was a commercial failure for several reasons including lack of affordable housing, consumer equipment and a reliable reading for consumer mistrust the Great Depression. Because of financial difficulties that plagued the recording industry during this period (and RCA own recipes arid), Victor "long play" records have been quietly abandoned by early 1933.
There was also a small batch of "play more" Documents issued in the 1930 early: Columbia Records introduced "more playing '10" (18000-D series), and a series of double-cup or more playing 10 "record on his Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone labels cheap. All these were eliminated in mid-1932.
However, lower levels of vinyl surface noise of shellac was not forgotten, nor its durability. In the late 30's, radio spots and radio programs pre-recorded to be sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, not to break through the mail. In the mid-1940s, special DJ copies of records began to be vinyl also, for the same reason. These are all 78s. During and after World War II when shellac supplies were extremely limited, 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac, especially the six minutes of 12 inches (30 cm) 78 towers produced by V-Disc for distribution to U.S. troops in the Second World War. In the '40s, transcripts radio, which are generally on the records of 16 inches, but sometimes 12 inch, were always made of vinyl, but cut to 33 rpm. Shorter transcripts were often cut at 78 rpm.
From 1939, Dr. Peter Goldmark and his staff of Columbia Records has undertaken efforts to solve problems Recording and playback of narrow gorges and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback. In 1948, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play (LP) 33 Album rpm LP was introduced by the British Society of recording during a press conference on 21 New York June, 1948. In February 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter, with a large hole in the center to receive an automatic play mechanism on the changer, if a stack of singles would drop down one record at the time automatically after each reading. In the early 45 rpm records were made from vinyl or polystyrene. They had a playing time of eight minutes.
On a small number of acoustic systems at the beginning and radio transcription discs, as well as whole albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the disk center and leading off. A small number of documents (such Jeff Mills' Apollo EP or hiding in the PlainSight EP Underground Resistance Detroit) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate tracks (usually called 'NSC-X2').
Speeds
Records Edison Diamond Disc "label, early 1920. Edison Disc Records always ran at 80 rpm.
The first rotation speed varies. Most of the files that were recorded in 19001925 to 7482 revolutions per minute (rpm). Edison Disc Records always operated at 80 rpm.
However a few unusual systems have been deployed. The Dutch Philips company introduced records whose rotational speed varied as reproducing "needle" ran at a constant linear velocity (CLV) in the groove. These documents, also unusual, played from inside to outside. These two characteristics subsequently found in the modern compact disc, which itself was also invented by Philips. The Science Museum in London displays a record marked CLV Philips as "D Speed."
In 1925, 78.26 rpm was chosen as standard because of the introduction of the electric motor fed plateau phase. The engine ran at 3600 rpm, so that a gear ratio 46:1 produce 78.26 rpm. In some parts of the world that used currently 50 Hz, the standard was 77.92 rpm (3000 rpm with a ratio of 38.5:1), which was also the speed at which a flash disk of 77 lines would "remain immobile "in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz). After the Second World War these cases were retrospectively called 78s, to distinguish them other new recording formats of disc. Previously they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders, disc recordings.
Columbia and RCA competition extended to equipment. Some turntables included adapters diameter of the tree, but other necessary to trim decks like this to adapt RCA 45 RPM larger shaft to the smaller pin available on almost all turntables. Living is a popular conception of the use for many years.
After the Second World War, two new competing formats came on the market and gradually replaced the standard "78": the number of laps 33 (often called simply the number of turns 33), and the number of laps 45 (see above). The 33 rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948. RCA Victor developed the format 45 laps and marketed in 1949 in response to Colombia. Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with smaller styliypically 0.001 inches (25 meters) wide, compared to 0.003 inches (76 m) 78 ° for the new records were sometimes called the phonograph. In the mid-1950s all record companies have agreed on a common recording standard called RIAA equalization. Before the creation of standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use preamplifiers with multiple EQ curves selectable.
While auditors speed strobe can be used to properly adjust the speed to 45 rpm platinum in the U.S. where the disk is illuminated by a strobe lamp run from a supply of 60 Hz, most flashes are somewhat unclear where it is a power at 50 Hz using a conventional single pulse segment, closer than we can reach is 45.112 rpm + requires a disc of 133 segments. The difference is the sound recording which has about twenty fifth of a semitone (almost noticeable). To construct a 50 Hz strobe disc appears stationary at exactly 45 rpm is possible and would need 400 advance segments of 3 segments on each light pulse.
A number of recordings were pressed at 16 rpm (usually a disc of 7 inches, visually identical at 45 rpm). Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the record 33 rpm record developed the Highway Hi-Fi rpm 16 to play in automobiles Chrysler, but poor performance of the system and implemented by the weakness of Chrysler and British led to the disappearance of 16 cases rpm. Subsequently, speed of 16 rpm was used for radio transcription discs or publications reported for the blind and visually impaired, and have never been widely available commercially, but it was common to see new models of turntable with a speed of 16 rpm setting up the product late 1970.
1959 Seeburg record 16 rpm
Seeburg Seeburg Corporation introduced the background music system in 1959, using a speed record of rotation 16 by 9 inches with 2 inch center hole. Each record has held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch.
The 78 old format continued to be mass produced along the new formats until 1960 in the United States, and in some countries such as India (Where some Beatles records were released on 78), in the 1960s. For example, last reissue Columbia Records' songs Frank Sinatra 78 rpm album was titled "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954. As late as the 1970s, records Some children were released at 78 rpm speed. In the United Kingdom, the 78 simple lasted longer than in the United States and took 45 laps more time to become popular. The 78s was surpassed in popularity by the 45 laps in the late 1950s, that teenagers have become increasingly rich, although some early singles Elvis Presley has sold more copies of 78 on 45. The last new 78 rpm singles in the UK were published in March 1960 and production ceased in 1961.
The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to the introduction of RCA Victor for what he intended to be a competing vinyl format, 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc. For a period of two years from 1948 to 1950, record companies and consumers face uncertainty in these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "war of speed." (See also War formats.) In 1949, Capitol and Decca adopted the new format and LP RCA relented and released her first album in January 1950. But size was 45 laps to win in popularity, too, and Colombia issued its first 45 in February 1951. In 1954, 200 million had been sold 45 years.
Finally the 12 inch (300 mm) 33 towers LP prevailed as the predominant form for music albums and 10 "LP are no longer issued. The last Columbia Records reissue of songs Frank Sinatra on a 10 "LP record was an album entitled" Hall of Fame, CL 2600, published October 26, 1956, containing six songs, each by Tony Bennett, Rosemary Clooney, Johnny Ray, Frank Sinatra, Doris Day and Frankie Laine. The 10 "LP, however, had a longer life in the United Kingdom, where significant rock albums early British and roll like Lonnie Donegan Showcase Lonnie Donegan and Billy Fury The Sound of Fury was released in that form. The 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm or "single" established a significant niche for shorter drives, usually containing an element of each side. The 45 discs rpm typically emulated the playing time of 78 old hard rpm, while the 12 "LP discs provided up to half an hour of time per side. The amount of music by LP ranged from a label and can be interpreted to interpreter. Frank Sinatra "A Case Swinging, "an album in mono, contained 15 songs and ran 50 minutes. other albums by other artists might run as little as 30 or 35 minutes. After the introduction of stereophonic recording, record time dropped because, presumably, the early stereo groove was wider the single groove.
A stroboscopic disc for 33 and 45 rpm (actually 44.77 rpm because it has the wrong number of segments on the ring 45) to 50 Hz
The 45 discs RPM has also come in a variety known as Extended Play (EP), which reaches up to 1015 minutes of play at the expense of mitigation (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the throat. EP records were usually used for the reissue albums smaller format for those who have only 45 players rpm. LP albums could be purchased 1 EP at a time, with four items per EP, or in a cabinet with 3 EPs or 12 points. The large center hole of 45 years allows easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. EPs were generally abandoned by the late 1950s three turntables and four-speed replaced the 45 individual players. An indication of the decline of PE 45s, is that the last Columbia Records reissue of songs from Frank Sinatra to 45 rpm records of the European Parliament, called "Frank Sinatra" (Columbia B-2641) was published December 7, 1959. However, the EP has lasted much longer in Europe, and was a popular format in the 1960s for recordings by artists as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, 45 rpm players only who did not have speakers connected and into an outlet on the back of a radio were widely available. Finally, they were replaced by the player threepeed record.
Since the mid- 1950's through 1960, the United States the "turntable" common house or "stereo" (After the introduction of the registration stereo) would normally have had these characteristics: a player three or four speeds (78, 45, 33 and sometimes 16 rpm) with changer, a major axis that would multiple records and automatically drops a new record over the previous when he had finished playing, a combination cartridge with peaks 78 and two LPs and a way to toggle between the two, and a kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole. The adapter can be a little corresponding circle on the bottom of the pin (which means that a 45 could be played at once) or a larger map that fit on the spindle assembly, This allows a stack of 45 years to be played.
RCA 45s were also adapted to the small pin of a turntable with a material plastic snap-in insert known as the "spider". These inserts, commissioned by RCA president David Sarnoff and invented by Thomas Hutchison, were prevalent from the 1960s, selling tens of millions per year in the 45's heyday. In countries outside the United States, 45 holes were often small businesses album (eg Australia and New Zealand), or a pseudo-spider was "Integrated" to the recording, which can be perforated, if desired (ie the UK, especially before the 1970s).
Deliberately playing or recording records at a higher speed gave an oddity to ancient voice to do a slower speed changed music and voice to a sinister, growling tone. Canadian musician Nash the Slash also took advantage of this speed / tonal effect with his 1981 breakdown 12-inch disc, which featured four instrumental tracks that were designed to play at any speed (with playing time listed for 33, 45 and 78 rpm playback).
Sound enhancements
As the LP has emerged as the dominant size for longer recordings, several developments have been made to improve the sound.
High fidelity
The first was the attempt to develop high fidelity, or hi-fi sound.
In the late 20s and early 30s, because the vertical modulation was considered the way to higher fidelity because of its "immunity to pick up common side turntables, caused by the rubber washer driving on the edge of the plateau, an earlier version Cook's binaural system (described below in Stereo) and has been tested, but for high-fidelity, not stereo (at least not yet).
This system uses the vertical modulation in the small space near the center of the disc to the lower part of the program, starting midway through the disc goes the label to avoid distortions in the center groove, and lateral modulation used for the treble part of the program in the largest gap from the edge of the disc mid-term for the part of the acute program. This means that the side plate roar could be filtered through the acute electronically by a crossover network and the crackling static and treble can be filtered in the lower by the same method. [Citation needed]
Since microphones vertical were harder to find and take more space than their counterparts side, experiments were carried out quickly to save both bass and treble parts of a program of high fidelity in their own grooves in a separate side fashion on the same side Disc. Using a two-channel amplifier and speaker system, with one channel driving the woofer range, and a channel to drive the medium combination range and tweeter, true wide-range high fidelity is achieved. The format was only experimental, but it was not long before that system was adapted again for the start of stereo (see below).
People who were affected by the hearing all sound quality, now integrated into the new LP has begun to buy separate turntables, amplifiers, speakers and woofers for the best sound possible.
Stan Freberg satirized those fans in his 1956 radio show with a skit about a man who has transformed his house into a loudspeaker.
Flanders & Swann also mocked the installation of components required for high fidelity reproduction in the song.
(In 1931, Victor experienced with a high-fidelity microphone recording and a number of documents issued in the 22900 and 24000 series have been surprisingly "hello-fi". However, the files were too strong and "blasty on most breeders home, and after receiving complaints from their dealers, Victor has stopped using the equipment in New York and Camden studios in mid-1932 and sent to their Chicago studio, where he continued to be used until about 1934.)
Stereo sound
In 1957, the first commercial two channel stereo records were issued on vinyl translucent blue Bel Canto, the first sampler is a highly-colored vinyl collection of "A Stereophonic Tour de Los Angeles "narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of songs from different albums Bel Canto at the rear. [Citation needed]
After 1958, more than stereo LP releases were provided by Fidelity Audio in the USA and Pye in Britain, using the Westrex "45/45" single-groove system.
While the stylus moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, stereo recordings, stylus moves vertically and horizontally. In fact, before the complete development system 45/45, the first radio cutting heads have been made by bolting a cutting side and a vertical cutting head sharing a common support stylus. Feed the coils driving with a material in a staggered appropriate, a practice that would later give birth to the matrices used in surround sound, reaches the throat 45/45.
See also http://78rpmrecord.com/altformat.htm
channels with the sound only on left channel
One could envisage a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hills and valleys" vertical motion; these systems have been proposed but not adopted because of their incompatibility with existing models of phono pickup (see below). Before these experiments, the lateral and vertical the throat were experienced in a discrete dual-throat described below.
However, before the system side single vertical groove was tested for stereo reproduction, the "components have been adopted for other uses, including many transcripts music radio station used the vertical modulation part with his "greater loyalty and be less susceptible to boom, and lateral portion speech, as the roar could be electronically filtered and not affect the program.
Also, in the mid-50 ", an engineer sound by the name of Mintner get tired of the inconsistency of the vertical portion of stereo recordings and their sensitivity to damage when playing with a cartridge single vertical line and not a stylus and found a way to have both recorded channels and laterally in the same groove.
Due frequency limitations of the cutting heads of the period, the disc should be contained at 16-2/3 rpm for playback at 33-1/3 RPM, a practice who would later be adapted and improved in the 70's, coupled with 180 grams super thick virgin vinyl to create half speed Mastered Audiophile LPs.
Similar to vertical side stereo played through a stereo system 45-45, Mintner left, the mono signal in the normal normal frequency range of 20Hz-20KHz, ensuring compatibility with players mono normal period, then moved that the difference signal to a band supersonic 45KHz to 20KHz-modulating a carrier signal 30KHz engraved on the disc. A carrier detector and the circuit matrix, similar to what would later be used for FM stereo multiplex carrier wave felt, he stripped, recovered the signal, then stamped with the original mono signal to create stereo.
Unfortunately, the development of small arms has been collecting many years in the future, and if the heavy weapons pickup in the '50s resulted in a carrier wave in the record to be completely destroyed after only a few plays. However, both the modulated carrier wave and matrix coding systems used here later be multiplied by two and used as a CD-4 and SQ / SQ quadraphonic respectively. [Citation needed]
Another early experimental stereo engraved the left channel of the program on the left (top) side of the disc running in a standard format in the clockwise and the right channel engraved on the right (lower) side of the disc so reverse. This was accomplished simply by turning the blunted front-to-back in the recording head and the introduction of a figure-8 flip in belt drive tower, causing the recording to still be done outside-in but in reverse.
To read the disc, pedal was depressed to separate the twins, who heads gramophone was facing another through the hub and insert the disc vertically like a jukebox. Then, the pedal has been released very carefully to put the head on the disc to play. As the pedals were apparent, most records were destroyed by the gramophone two large heads crashing on the hard pedal when the load was released.
The format is dead mainly because of the fragility of 78 as described above, and also because of the fact that some discs have been produced offset in a format for players with heads on opposite sides of the plateau, while others were produced for the scanning machines gramophone head with the same side. Playing a disc made for a player on the other would lead to a difference of half-turn in the program, like trying to read an album of movie on a job-changer where the parties are out of sequence. [Citation needed]
Using another technique borrowed from vintage recordings that accompanied Vitaphone sound films in the 20 "before the advent of sound film, Arrows were inscribed on the master indicating the beginning of the period in the throat. Stampers could then be either aligned or staggered with a Another production of the RPF, which, incidentally, because of the care demands required for the alignment matrix was performed in facilities long sleep and Vitaphone exact same record production that produced the originals.
For a good visual problems associated with early Vitaphone, see scene recording and movie scene preview of Gene Kelly in MGM's Singin 'in the Rain. Unlike most discs, the needle on the record Vitaphone moved from inside the disc to the outside, a practice which is half-borrowed by the engineers Record live these days of pre-tape recording odd sides of a live performance conventionally outside to inside, and even the sides of a backwards and forth between the two towers of the disc. When pressed and pressed, these discs were produced with a hybrid operator manual and automatic sequence of disc changer DJ called sequence, so that at any time an operator never to return a larger disk to continue.
This line / staggered heads Shellacque idea of 78 double-sided stereo would later be used competition in the home stereo recording formats of the early 50's, once again, a machine being unable to play stereo recordings performed on the other. This time, however, a format online, has prevailed.
After laying dormant for over 40 years, the idea of having a head on the side of a disc and a head on the back has been included in the 70's by Sharp Electronics and used in a compact design platinum play both sides of a vertical orientation LP in order without having to move the stylus from one side to the other (as in a reader duplex laser-disc collection which moves up and down to play the other side). Each party had its "own cartridge and stylus, and three-inch plate can rotate in both directions for as long as 45 minutes of uninterrupted music.
Cook stereo system dual-throat borrowed from this, but put the two grooves on the same side of the disc, burning the left channel of the groove near the top edge of the disk and the right channel beginning near to Halfway through the registration point and conclusion about the label. A pick-up double-side was used for playback.
In Westrex system, the vertical lateral system described above is tilted 45 degrees, allowing each channel to drive the cutting head at an angle 45 degrees vertically, sharing in both lateral and vertical modulations and eliminating the need for a matrix during the encoding a stereo source.
During playback the combined signal is sensed by a left channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the inner face throat, and a right channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the outer surface of the throat.
It is useful to think of the combined stylus motion in terms of vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels. Indeed, all the vertical movements pen transmits the difference signal LR and horizontal motion is the stylus L + R summed signal.
The advantages of the 45/45 system are:
greater compatibility with monophonic recording and systems reading. A monophonic cartridge will reproduce an equal mixture of left and right channels instead of reproducing a single channel. (However, many styles monophonic would prevent a stereo groove, leading to the common recommendation to never use a mono cartridge stereo recording.) Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally by both channels, rather than one channel.
a more balanced because the two channels have equal fidelity (rather than providing more of a vertical chain recorded fidelity and low-fidelity laterally recorded channel);
high fidelity in general, because the "difference" signal is usually low power and therefore less affected by the intrinsic distortion of the Registration of hills and valleys.
This system was invented by Alan Blumlein of EMI in 1931 and patented in the same year. EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in 1933 see Bell Labs experiments Stereo 1933. It was not used commercially until a quarter century later.
Stereo sound creates an experience listening more natural when the spatial location of the source of a sound is, at least in part, reproduced.
Other improvements
Sub Executive Engineer of C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone recording technique with mono in 1951. The first record, Kubelik / Chicago performance "from" Pictures at an Exhibition "was described as" being in the living presence of the orchestra "By music critic New York Times. The series of documents was then appointed ercury Living Presence. In 1955, Mercury began stereo recordings three-channel, always based on the principle of single microphone. The center (single) microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side microphones adding depth and space. master recording was cut directly from a three-way mixing to Both lanes of the console, with all the editing of tapes made on the first three-track. In 1961, Mercury enhanced this technique with stereo recordings three microphone using a 35 mm film instead of half-inch magnetic tape for recording. The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented Wi-layer print through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response. Mercury Living Presence recordings have been remastered on CD in the 1990s by the original producer Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the recorder master.
The development of quadraphonic records was announced in 1971. These recorded four separate sound signals. This was performed on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined in the main signal. When recordings were played, phase-detection circuits in amplifiers have been able to decode the signals into four separate channels. There were two main systems of matrixed quadraphonic records produced, confusingly named SQ (by CBS) and QS (by Sansui). They were unsuccessful in trade, but were an important precursor to later "surround sound" systems, as shown in SACD and home cinema today. A different format, CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc) by RCA, encoded rear channel information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special cartridge broadband to capture the tone arm carefully calibrated / plate combinations. Typically, high frequency information inscribed on these disks had after only a few playing and CD-4 was even less successful than the two matrix sizes. (Another problem was that no cutting heads are available that could process information HF. This has been circumvented by cutting at half-speed. " Later, special half speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were used to obtain a wider frequency response in stereo with a distortion reduced and a greater margin.)
During the years 1960, 1970 and 1980, various methods to improve the dynamic range of documents involved in mass advanced disc cutting equipment. These techniques, market, to name two, as the CBS and DisComputer Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion. RCA Victor introduced another system to increase the dynamic range and achieve a groove with less noise surface under the trade name Dynagroove. Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the throat compression and dynamic to hide the noise. Sometimes this was called "stopping down" the source material and not favored by some music fans for his unnatural side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brand name Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. He also used the method suggested earlier prospective control over the distance from the track volume level and position on the disk. The pieces were close each other with lower volumes and more with the loudest passages, especially for bass. Also the highest density track at lower volumes has stop recording disk farther from the inner circle than usual, helping to reduce distortion endtrack further.
Also in the Late 1970s, "direct-to-disc" records were produced for a niche audiophile. These totally away from the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Also during this period, "half-speed mastered" and "original master" records were released, using expensive a technology. Another development late 1970 was the Disco Eye-LPC used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980. The introduction, drum-breaks or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving an indication visual DJs mixing records. The appearance of these documents is similar to an LP, but they contain only one for each side.
The early 1980s saw the introduction of "dbx-encoded" records, again for the audiophile niche market. They were completely incompatible with standard record playback preamplifiers, relying on the dbx compandor encoding / decoding scheme to greatly increase dynamic range (dbx encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two in dB: quiet sounds were meant to be read low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played at high gain, the automatic gain control in the playback equipment, This reduces the effect of surface noise on quiet passages). A similar regime of very short duration was to use the CBS-developed "CX" noise reduction encoding / decoding scheme.
Laser tray
Main article: Laser tray
ELPJ, a Japanese based company, has developed a drive that uses a laser instead of a stylus to read vinyl discs. In theory, turning the laser eliminates the possibility of scratches and the degradation of the agent of his, but his spending limits used primarily to digital archiving of analog records and the laser not recognize the vinyl color or image. Various other laser turntables were tried during the 1990s, but while a laser reads the groove so very precise, because it does not touch the file, the dust that vinyl naturally attracts due to static charge is not cleaned from the groove, worsening its occasional use as compared to conventional stylus playback.
Tenuous link with the laser is the hub http://irene.lbl.gov/ invented IRENE by a team of physicists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories to retrieve information from any single source laterally modulated groove without touching the media itself.
However, IRENE is only good for mono recordings side. For vertically modulated media such as corrugating rolls and some transcripts radio that have a format of the hills and valleys of the registration, or for stereo or quadraphonic recordings using grooved a combination of both, and encoding for quadraphonic supersonic, it will not work.
Enter the offspring IRENE, the confocal microscope barrel project http://www.flickr.com/photos/kqedquest/2711763438/ that captures an image at high resolution 3-D surface, down to 200 m. To convert a digital audio file, then it is played with a version of the program the same "virtual stylus" developed by the research team in real time, converted to digital and, if necessary, treated through programs and sound restoration.
However, before the final reading of the computer to convert digital audio files in real time, it is also possible to remove many of the imperfections in the audio media while remaining in the field of video, by using the same tools that major movie studios in the restoration of their films. The result is truly magnificent. [Citation needed]
Formats
The protective cover of the point Voyager Golden Record, containing symbolic information on how it should be played.
Document Types
See also: Recording medium comparison
See also http://78rpmrecord.com/altformat.htm
As recording technology evolved, more specific terms for different types of discs have been used to describe certain aspects of registration: either its correct speed ("16 rpm (revolutions per minute) "33 rounds", "45 RPM", "78's") or the material used (particularly "vinyl" to refer Documents in polyvinyl chloride, or the first "shellac" usually the main ingredient of 78s). Other terms such as "Long Play "or LP and" Extended Play "EP or describe the documents multitrack playing much longer than the records of a single object-by-side which generally are not much past 4 minutes per side. An LP may play for thirty minutes on each side. The 7 "45 format rpm normally contains an element of each side, but a 7 "EP could reach recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense mitigation and sound compression to reduce the width required by the throat. EP records were usually used for the available tracks and rather than simply including tracks on vinyl albums in a little less expensive format for players who had only 45 rpm. The large hole in the center, 7 "45 rpm allows easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. The term "album", originally used to designate a "book" with notes, holding several 78 rpm records each in its own "page" or sleeve, has no relation with the physical format: a single LP record, or more generally nowadays a compact disc.
Folder sizes in America and the UK are generally measured in inches, usually represented by a symbol double bonus, for example, a 7-inch or 7 "record, which are usually 45 rpm discs. LPS were 10" records at first, but soon the 12 " size became by far the most common with 78 towers are generally 10 "but 12" and 7 "and even smallerhe called" little wonders. "
Common formats
Diameter
Rpm
the length of time
12 inches (30 cm)
33 laps
45 min long play (LP)
45 RPM
12-inch single, Maxi Single, and Extended Play (EP)
10 inches (25 cm)
33 laps
Long (LP)
78 laps
3 minutes
7 "(17.5 cm)
45 RPM
Playing a single and extended (EP)
33 laps
Often used for recordings in children the years 1960 and 1970.
Notes:
Before the early 1950s, the 33 rpm LP was usually in a 10-inch (25 cm) format.
Format 10 "has disappeared from stores in the United States around 1950, but remains a common
format in some markets until mid-1960. Format Vinyl 10 "was resurrected in the 1970s
for the marketing of popular recordings as collectibles, and are sometimes visible today.
The maximum length of each side for an LP is feasible with styluses special
so engineers Cutting often an aversion to cutting grooves such.
Less common formats
Main article: Unusual types of discs
Structure
A standard large hole vinyl 7 "from 1978 in its respective sleeve.
The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side of the disc, running from the outer edge toward the center. The last part of the spiral meets an anterior part forming a circle. The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the throat that cause a stylus (needle) placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed. In general, the outer and inner parts of the throat are not his goal (unless an exception is Split Enz Mental Notes).
Since the late 1910s, the two sides of the recording were used to produce the grooves. Sometimes files were issued in the 1920s with a recording on one side. In the eighties Columbia indicates briefly issued a series of sided 45-rpm singles as "loss leaders", the theory being that they can pay less for a single face when he is not required to pay Charges for both artists.
The majority of cases non78 rpm are pressed on black vinyl. The pigment used to darken the mixture of plastic Clear PVC is carbon black. Black carbon increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque. Polystyrene is often used for records of 7 inches. Recently (2008), the Classic reissue label has announced that they would all future releases on vinyl transparent after technicians determined that the black carbon itself has magnetic properties that interfere with a good reading of the cartridge.
Some records are pressed on colored vinyl or pictures paper embedded in them ("picture disc). Some 45 rpm RCA or RCA Victor "Red Seal" records used red translucent vinyl for extra "Red Seal" effect. During the 1980s there was a tendency for single release on vinyl color sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters. This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles.
LP standards for the U.S. to follow the lines Guidelines Record Industry Association of America (RIAA). Dimensions are nominal inches, diameter not accurate. The actual size a record of 12 inches is 302 mm (11.89 inches) for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and a 7-inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in).
Recordings made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size. The disk diameters are generally 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.
There is an area of about 6 mm (0.25 inch) wide on the outside edge of the disc, called the lead-in where the groove is widely spaced and silent. This section allows the stylus to be abandoned early in the record groove, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.
Between each track the recorded portion of a vinyl record, there is usually a short interval of about 1 mm (0.04 in) where the groove is widely spaced. This space is clearly visible, which makes it easy to find a specific track.
A macro photo of deeper grooves of a vinyl record. sound stored as variations on the slopes is clearly visible as the dust on the record.
Magnified grooves. Dust can be found. red lines mark one millimeter
Toward the center of the label at the end of the gorge, there is another large section of slope known as the lead-out. At the end of this section, the groove joins to form a complete circle, called the lock groove when the stylus reaches this point, she turns up repeatedly lifted Record. On some recordings (eg Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band The Beatles and Atom Heart Mother by Pink Floyd), the sound continues on the groove lock, which gives a strange effect repetition. Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as happens to these grooves farther apart, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm and he moves out of the way of registration.
The catalog number and ID matrix is written or stamped in the space between the lead-out groove on the master disc, which indented writing visible on the final version of a file. Sometimes, the engineer Cutting can add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly satisfied with the quality of the cut. These are commonly called the "engravings run-out. "
When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised (or ridged) outer edge and a raised area of the label. This would allow records to be stacked on each other, grasping each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, thus reducing the risk of damage. Auto changing turntables included a mechanism for supporting a stack of several records above the plateau itself, dropping them one at a time on the active deck to play in order. more sound recordings, such as complete operas, were striped across multiple disks of 10 inches or 12 inches for use with mechanisms of self-evolution, so that the first record of a registration of three discs would sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disc would sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2 and 3 to be played automatically, then the whole stack in reverse play sides 4, 5 and 6.
Quality vinyl
The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of vinyl. During the early 1970s, as a movement to reduce costs to the use of lightweight materials, flexible vinyl pressings, much of the industry adopted a technique of reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor as the "Dynaflex" (125 g) process, considered as inferior by most record collectors. Most vinyl records are pressed from a blend of seventy percent virgin vinyl and thirty percent recycled vinyl.
New "virgin" or "heavy / heavy" (180 220 g) vinyl is commonly used for modern releases "Audiophile" vinyl in all genres. Many collectors prefer to have 180 albums on vinyl g, and were reported to have better sound than normal vinyl. These albums tend to resist deformation caused by normal play better than that of vinyl chloride 180 g is more expensive to produce because it uses more than vinyl. The manufacturing processes are the same regardless of weight. In fact, the record pressing light requires more care. An exception is the propensity of 200 g dry cleaners are slightly more inclined to "non-fill", where the cookie does not meet the vinyl not sufficiently deep gorge during pressing (percussion and voice amplitude changes are the usual locations of these objects). This fault has a squeak or scraping the non-filling point.
Since vinyl records contain up to thirty percent recycled vinyl, impurities can be accumulated in the account, causing a new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops. Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, it depends on quality control of the manufacturer.
The effect orange peel on vinyl is caused by mold wear. Rather than having the correct finish like a mirror, the disk surface has what looks like a texture of orange peel. This introduces noise in the record, especially in the lower frequency range. It should be noted that the direct control metal (MMD) of the master disc is cut on a hard-coated copper which may also have a minor "orange peel" on the disk itself. As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect because there is no physical distortion of the throat.
Although all LPs are pressed from metal discs known as "stamps" a technique known as the tower section is used to cr … About the Author

I am China Suppliers writer, reports some information about photo sticker machine , antique gumball machine.

1972 Seeburg Loretta Lynn – You’re Lookin At Country

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Original 1946 Wurlitzer 1015 Jukebox 78rpm Bubbler Older Restoration Beautiful!


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Gazelle Nostalgic Music Center Jukebox


Rock-Ola Gazelle Nostalgic Music Center Jukebox


$8,295.00


1935 Mills Deluxe Dance Master  Model 886 Jukebox 100% working


1935 Mills Deluxe Dance Master Model 886 Jukebox 100% working


$8,000.00


Rock-Ola Music Center Bubbler Jukebox *Comes with Music*


Rock-Ola Music Center Bubbler Jukebox *Comes with Music*


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Nostalgic Bubbler Music Center Jukebox


Rock-Ola Nostalgic Bubbler Music Center Jukebox


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Bubbler Digital Round Top Jukebox - American Made Classic


Rock-Ola Bubbler Digital Round Top Jukebox – American Made Classic


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox - Walnut


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox – Walnut


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Gazelle Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox


Rock-Ola Gazelle Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox - Oak


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox – Oak


$7,995.00


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox - White


Rock-Ola Nostalgic CD Bubbler Jukebox – White


$7,995.00

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